Incidence matrix

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A matrix, say LaTeX: M, that represents the incidence of edges or arcs to nodes in a graph or network. In the undirected case, LaTeX: M is binary valued: if edge LaTeX: k has endpoints LaTeX: i and LaTeX: j, then LaTeX: M_{ik} = M_{jk} = 1 and LaTeX: M_{rk} = 0 for LaTeX: r \neq i,j. In the directed case, the entry LaTeX: -1 indicates the tail: if the arc is directed from LaTeX: i to LaTeX: j, LaTeX: M_{ik} =-1 and LaTeX: M_{jk} = 1.

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