Simulated annealing

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An algorithm for solving hard problems, notably combinatorial programs, based on the metaphor of how annealing works: reach a minimum energy state upon cooling a substance, but not too quickly in order to avoid reaching an undesirable final state. As a heuristic search, it allows a non-improving move to a neighbor with a probability that decreases over time. The rate of this decrease is determined by the cooling schedule, often just a parameter used in an exponential decay (in keeping with the thermodynamic metaphor). With some (mild) assumptions about the cooling schedule, this will converge in probability to a global optimum.

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